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قراءة في الاتفاق النووي الإيراني

قراءة في الاتفاق النووي الإيراني

في يوم الثلاثاء ٨ مايو ٢٠١٨، أعلن الرئيس الأمريكي دونالد ترمب إنسحاب دولته من الإتفاق النووي الإيراني بعد ترقب وإنتظار طويل.
لم يكن قرار دونالد ترمب مفاجئا أو غريبا على الساحة الدولية حيث أنه كان يندد بهذا الإتفاق الذي وصفه “بالفاسد والمتعفن” منذ الحملات الانتخابية في عام ٢٠١٦. ولكن بلا شك، عدم إلتزامه بالإتفاقية أغضب الكثير من الدول الحليفة للولايات المتحدة وخاصة الدول الأوروبية.
حيث أشارت الكثير من الدول وخاصة الأوروبية بفعالية الاتفاق النووي، أو بما يسمى خطة العمل الشاملة المشتركة JCPOA Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action، وأنها كانت تعمل بشكل جيد، أو على الأقل كانت ستؤجل أي نية أو قدرة لإيران لاستكمال خطتها النووية.
خطة العمل الشاملة المشتركة هو مستند اتفاقية بين إيران حول برنامجها النووي والدول الخمس دائمة العضوية في مجلس الأمن الدولي- الولايات المتحدة وروسيا والصين وفرنسا والمملكة المتحدة بالإضافة الى المانيا-. وافقت فيه الحكومة الإيرانية على التخلي عن أجزاء من خطتها النووية مقابل رفع العقوبات المفروضة عليها.تدريجيًا. يتخوف البعض من الاتفاقية لأنها لا تناقش برنامج إيران للصواريخ البالستية ولا تذكر بالتفصيل أي شيء يتعلق بالأنشطة النووية بعد عام ٢٠٢٥ وهو تاريخ انتهاء الاتفاقية. المثير للأهمية أن الاتفاقية لا تشمل سلوك وتوجهات إيران في منطقة الشرق الأوسط وتدخلها في شؤون الدول المجاورة والتي أشار اليها ترمب عند الغاء هذه الاتفاقية. وذلك يزيد من تعقيد الإتفاقية التي يصفها الغالبية بعدم الشمولية. وحتى الدول الأوروبية المؤيدة للإتفاقية تعترض على تجاهل الصلة بين أفعال إيران في المنطقة وبرنامجها النووي.
كانت هذه الاتفاقية بقيادة الرئيس الإيراني حسن روحاني-الذي وصفته أمريكا بالمعتدل- الذي عارضه الكثير من الإيرانين آنذاك للدخول في هذه الإتفاقية، وعندما أقتربت هذه الإتفاقية من النجاح، أتى قرار الرئيس الأمريكي بالأمس ليشًل من أقدام روحاني ويعقد الوضع السياسي في إيران بشكل أكبر. ولقد أدلى الرئيس الإيراني بتصريحه بعد إعلان ترمب عن الإنسحاب، محذرا ترمب بأن إيران تستطيع أن تستئنف تخصيب اليورانيوم دون أي حدود، مؤكدا أن الإتفاقية لا تزال متعددة الأطراف وليست فقط مع الولايات المتحدة.
بالرغم من المعارضات من حلفائه الأوروبيين، لم يكتفي الرئيس الأمريكي بإنسحاب دولته من الإتفاقية النووية ولكنه أكَد بأنه سيعيد فرض العقوبات الاقتصادية التي تم التنازل عنها عندما تم توقيع الصفقة في عام ٢٠١٥. وصرحت وزارة الخزانة الأمريكية أن العقوبات الإقتصادية لن يعاد فرضها على الفور ، ولكنها ستخضع لفترة تمتد من ٩٠ إلى ١٨٠ يومًا حتى تهدأ الأوضاع. ويعلل الرئيس الأمريكي سبب ذلك بأن إيران لم تلتزم بشروط الإتفاق على الإطلاق ومازالت مصدر توتر في منطقة الشرق الأوسط. واسترجاع إيران لما يقارب ال ١٠٠مليار دولار بعد رفع العقوبات سوف يمكنها من الإستمرار في تمويل الإرهاب في المنطقة.
إن العقوبات الجديدة التي سوف تفرضها الولايات المتحدة لن تؤثر فقط على إقتصاد إيران المتهالك، ولكن أيضا على الشركات الأجنبية (الغير أمريكية) التي تتعامل مع طهران، وذلك يسبب مشكلة أكبر في الساحة الإقتصادية والدولية.
من جانب آخر، في حين معارضة أغلب الدول الحليفة لأمريكا للقرار، أيدت السعودية والإمارات وبعض الدول الأخرى انسحاب الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية من الإتفاق النووي، ودعمت قرار ترمب بإعادة فرض العقوبات الاقتصادية على إيران، حيث تعد المملكة العربية السعودية من أكبر المتضررين في حال إتمام الاتفاقية نظرا للموقف الإيراني العدائي في المنطقة في سوريا، ولبنان، واليمن وغير ذلك.

كل ما يحدث الآن يجعلنا نتسائل عن التعارض بين التوجه الأمريكي والأوروبي وما إذا كان هنالك عوامل أعمق مما هو مطروح، فبالرغم من انسحاب أقوى دولة من الإتفاقية النووية، إلا أن موقف إيران الآن أصبح بين نارين تتلظى، نار العقوبات الشديدة وإلتزامها مع الإتفاقية النووية مع باقي الدول. ولا يمكننا الحكم مبكرًا، حيث ستشهد الأسابيع المقبلة الكثير من المتغيرات.

ومن ناحية نجد أنه في نفس الوقت لا يمكننا تجاهل ارتباط المفاوضات النووية الأمريكية-الإيرانية والمفاوضات الأمريكية مع كوريا الشمالية التي تحدث في الوقت ذاته. واقعيًا، يٌمكننا أن ننظر في وضع كوريا الشمالية بحالتين. الأول أن قرار الرئيس ترمب لخرق الإتفاق النووي مع إيران سيكون تهديدا للمفاوضات النووية القائمة بين الولايات المتحدة وكوريا الشمالية. لذلك، إنه من السهل أن تضر الخطوة التي قام بها ترمب بالأمس، بأي تعاون مستقبلي محتمل مع كوريا الشمالية. الثاني، أن إستمالة كوريا الشمالية لأمريكا من جهة، وفرض أمريكا المزيد من العقوبات على إيران يزيد من إحتمالية فقدان إيران لحليفها النووي- كوريا الشمالية.
ستوضح الكثير من التساؤلات والاحتمالات حينما يلتقي الرئيس دونالد ترمب مع رئيس كوريا الشمالية كيم جونغ أون في سنغافورة بتاريخ١٢ يونيو ٢٠١٨.
إضافة إلى ذلك، روسيا والصين يلعبان دورا هاماً في هذه الاتفاقية، خاصة وأن لديهم مصالح مشتركة مع إيران في منطقة الشرق الأوسط. أعربت الحكومتين عن رفضهم قرار ترمب للانسحاب مؤكدين بأن الاتفاق ليس ملكا للولايات المتحدة فقط ولكنه انجاز للمجتمع الدولي كله.

وأخيرا، هناك سلسلة من الأسئلة التي تدور في أذهاننا، ربما تقودنا مستقبلًا لأفكار بحثية أخرى. كيف سيتمكن الرئيس دونالد ترمب من إدارة مفاوضات معقدة للغاية مع كوريا الشمالية في الوقت التي تحاول فيه إدارة عملية إعادة التفاوض مع طهران وكذلك الاتحاد الأوروبي؟ ناهيك عن القضايا الداخلية في الولايات المتحدة التي تتطلب تركيزًا عاليا.
هل تحمل الأيام القادمة المزيد من الصراعات في منطقة الشرق الأوسط؟ أم سيكون هذا القرار سبب في إستقرار المنطقة بعد سنوات من الفوضى؟

لا تتجاهلني

لا تتجاهلَني مرة
كي لا اتجاهلك عشرة!

لعبةُ كبرِيائكَ طالت
ولن تنطليَ علي خِداعك..

لم اكن أتوقع أنني ساستخدمُ هذا الاسلوب معك
لقد أوصلتني لما أوصلتني.. وضاع الكلام

“قد اغفر لك مئة مرة..
إلى حد أن تعتقد أني لن أفعل سوى الغفران..
غير أني أنسحب فجأة في المرة المئة وواحد..
ودون استئذان! ”

لا تختبر صبري
لأنني عادةً ما أُخيّب ظن من يتحداني
وأكره من يستغبيني

أنا طيبة لأن هذا قراري
ولكن أن تتوقع مِني الطيبة في كل وقت وبلا حدود.. فهذهِ مشكلة عميقة في توقعاتك!
فكما طيبتي تَشفي.. فإن برودي وزعلي.. يقتُل.

يقتُلني أنا اولا لأنك فعلتَ ما فعلت لتوصلني لهذه النقطة
ثم يقتلَك.. لأن تعرف أنك لا تستطيع العيش بدوني..
أعلم انك لا تريد لهذا السيناريو ان يحصل
أعلم أنني اضفت في حياتك الكثير
أعلم أنني ادخلت السرور والفرح في حياتك.. ولم ازل
أعلم أنني أعني في قلبك الكثير..
ولكن مجرد المعرفة لا يكفيني
أحتاج أن أتيقن
لا أحتاج أن أتحير في كل مرةٍ يحصُل هذا الصمت الرهيب بيننا..
اتراهُ يحبني؟

يجب أن تتمسك بي جيدا إن كنت حقا لا تريد مني الرحيل
فإن لم أجد أرض خصبة عِندكَ لإحتوائي
فعادتي أن ارحل..

لا تُخبرني بأنك تشعر بالملل.. في وسط محاداثتنا
لا تجعلني اندم.. بأنني اعطيتُك الغالي والرخيص من وقتي..

شخصيا.. أعلم أنني لن اندم

لإن كل ما عملته .. كان من أجلي.. أكثر من أنه لأجلك..

لقد ضحيتُ بالكثير.. ومستعدة للأكثر.. لكن فقط لمن يستحق

فهل تستحقني؟

شهد

I tell people who once left me

I tell people who once left me

You’ve left a beautiful, pure, and loving soul.
You lost someone that is unattainable at all times
You lost me..

You’ve left behind you, nothing, but very painful memories. I wish they never ever existed, so I do not have to go through every piece and bits and cry over and over them again. I alway wonder, why would some one ever leave.. me..?

RIP commitment.

RIP to all those days when you told me how much I meant to you, but you still left, not caring about any promises you have ever made to me.

You swore by my eyes that you will never leave them, did my eyes mean little to you?
you swore by the moon, that you will be on my side, the moon is a witness to your betrayal.

I cant complain enough, not only because it wont change anything, but because you do not deserve my time, as I once thought.

I had a lot of dreams, I thought we will be together..longer, but you left so early that I cannot go over it till this very moment.

At the end, I will just say that the girl you left, is not waiting for you to come back.

Fed up

It’s always me who do the effort
I always start
I think about them all day
I get worried that they might be sad or upset from me
I care too much and GOD do they even deserve that?
This time.. this specific time.. i am so fed up
I cant take it anymore and I don’t want to and most importantly I don’t have to!

Call me stubborn or call me stupid, I just cant. You cant persuade me that they did that out of love.. not this time!
Do I even have to explain what loving someone entails?

Stop playing yourself and get real.
Talk to me, face me, don’t keep quiet

Unfortunately, by the end of the day, you’re the innocent and I am the mean person right?
at least thats how people view it.

I am sick of everyone around me, just go away.. now!

خربشات..

لم أحقد على أحد كما حقدت عليك يومها
اليوم الذي اخبرتني فيه بأن علاقتنا لا يمكن أن تستمر وأن الحب الذي في قلبك.. أنتهى؟

أذكر أنني صرخت في وجهك حينها: أنتهى!!! كيف يمكن لحب صادق أن ينتهي؟

كنت انتظر منك الرد، ولكنك لم تتفوه بأي كلمة وطأطأت رأسك..
بدأت أبكي واردد كالمجنونة: “الشخص الذي أحبني بكل ما فيني، تركني”

أقنعتني الايام التي قضيتها أبكي بأن العلاقة التي جمعتنا كانت كل شيء الا حب صادق..

شؤون صغيرة

‎شؤون صغيرة
‎تمر بها أنت .. دون التفات
‎تساوي لدي حياتي
‎جميع حياتي..
‎حوادث .. قد لا تثير اهتمامك
‎أعمر منها قصور
‎وأحيا عليها شهور
‎وأغزل منها حكايا كثيرة
‎وألف سماء..
‎وألف جزيرة..
‎شؤون ..
‎شؤونك تلك الصغيرة
‎فحين تدخن أجثو أمامك
‎كقطتك الطيبة
‎وكلي أمان
‎ألاحق مزهوة معجبة
‎خيوط الدخان
‎توزعها في زوايا المكان
‎دوائر.. دوائر
‎وترحل في آخر الليل عني
‎كنجم، كطيب مهاجر
‎وتتركني يا صديق حياتي
‎لرائحة التبغ والذكريات
‎وأبقي أنا ..
‎في صقيع انفرادي
‎وزادي أنا .. كل زادي
‎حطام السجائر
‎وصحن .. يضم رمادا
‎يضم رمادي..
***
‎وحين أكون مريضة
‎وتحمل أزهارك الغالية
‎صديقي.. إلي
‎وتجعل بين يديك يدي
‎يعود لي اللون والعافية
‎وتلتصق الشمس في وجنتي
‎وأبكي .. وأبكي.. بغير إرادة
‎وأنت ترد غطائي علي
‎وتجعل رأسي فوق الوسادة..
‎تمنيت كل التمني
‎صديقي .. لو أني
‎أظل .. أظل عليلة
‎لتسأل عني
‎لتحمل لي كل يوم
‎ورودا جميلة..
‎وإن رن في بيتنا الهاتف
‎إليه أطير
‎أنا .. يا صديقي الأثير
‎بفرحة طفل صغير
‎بشوق سنونوة شاردة
‎وأحتضن الآلة الجامدة
‎وأعصر أسلاكها الباردة
‎وأنتظر الصوت ..
‎صوتك يهمي علي
‎دفيئا .. مليئا .. قوي
‎كصوت نبي
‎كصوت وارتطام النجوم
‎كصوت سقوط الحلي
‎وأبكي .. وأبكي ..
‎لأنك فكرت في
‎لأنك من شرفات الغيوب
‎هتفت إلي..
***
‎ويوم أجيء إليك
‎لكي أستعير كتاب
‎لأزعم أني أتيت لكي أستعير كتاب
‎تمد أصابعك المتعبة
‎إلى المكتبة..
‎وأبقي أنا .. في ضباب الضباب
‎كأني سؤال بغير جواب..
‎أحدق فيك وفي المكتبة
‎كما تفعل القطة الطيبة
‎تراك اكتشفت؟
‎تراك عرفت؟
‎بأني جئت لغير الكتاب
‎وأني لست سوى كاذبة
‎.. وأمضى سريعا إلى مخدعي
‎أضم الكتاب إلى أضلعي
‎كأني حملت الوجود معي
‎وأشعل ضوئي .. وأسدل حولي الستور
‎وأنبش بين السطور .. وخلف السطور
‎وأعدو وراء الفواصل .. أعدو
‎وراء نقاط تدور
‎ورأسي يدور ..
‎كأني عصفورة جائعة
‎تفتش عن فضلات البذور
‎لعلك .. يا .. يا صديقي الأثير
‎تركت بإحدى الزوايا ..
‎عبارة حب قصيرة ..
‎جنينة شوق صغيرة
‎لعلك بين الصحائف خبأت شيا
‎سلاما صغيرا .. يعيد السلام إليا ..
***
‎وحين نكون معا في الطريق
‎وتأخذ – من غير قصد – ذراعي
‎أحس أنا يا صديق ..
‎بشيء عميق
‎بشيء يشابه طعم الحريق
‎على مرفقي ..
‎وأرفع كفي نحو السماء
‎لتجعل دربي بغير انتهاء
‎وأبكي .. وأبكي بغير انقطاع
‎لكي يستمر ضياعي
‎وحين أعود مساء إلى غرفتي
‎وأنزع عن كتفي الرداء
‎أحس – وما أنت في غرفتي –
‎بأن يديك
‎تلفان في رحمة مرفقي
‎وأبقي لأعبد يا مرهقي
‎مكان أصابعك الدافئات
‎على كم فستاني الأزرق ..
‎وأبكي .. وأبكي .. بغير انقطاع
‎كأن ذراعي ليست ذراعي..

Al-Qaeda’s Development

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April 9th, 2015

 

Al-Qaeda’s Development  

 

Introduction

Terrorism as a social movement played a big role in the last two decades. Since the attacks of September 11th, the western world has labeled Al-Qaeda as suicidal and irrational terrorists hating the western “way of life”. Is this really why Al-Qaeda emerged? If yes, then why? Since 1993 to the present, Al-Qaeda had gone through many stages over the past twenty years. These changes have affected its organizational mode and structure and shifted the organization into a new level. This paper is going to focus on the political and social changes Al-Qaeda has gone through that affected its organizational mode and structure. Applying social movement theories would give a better understanding and a full picture of Al-Qaeda’s development. It will explain in details the reasons behind Al-Qaeda’s emergence, what caused the change in the organizational mode leading to today’s structure and to what extent can social movement theory describe al-Qaeda’s development. To answer the research questions, three social movement theories would be discussed, which are, resource mobilization theory, political opportunity processes, and framing processes.

 

The Emergence of AL-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda emerged in Afghanistan in the late 1980s as volunteers joining the US-backed Afghan fighters to fight against the occupying Soviet Union. Osama Bin-Laden set up an organization to help the volunteers, which became known as Al-Qaeda, or “the base” in Arabic. He left Afghanistan in 1989, returning in 1996 to run military training camps for thousands of foreign Muslims. In 1998 he called for attacks on US soldiers and civilians. Bombs soon destroyed two US embassies in Africa. Understanding Al- Qaeda’s ideology is central to prevailing over their structure and the phenomenon of global terrorism. The international common image about Al-Qaeda’s ideology is that they hate the western way of life and that they want to implement Islamic Sharia Law to rule with it. This might not be necessarily the main objective of Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda’s ideology is profoundly internationalist, attempting to contextualize local conflicts as part of a broader global struggle against oppressive regimes. They are just like any other terrorist groups; seeking to achieve their political goals by spreading fear and terrorizing people. Al-Qaeda’s strategy flows logically from its ideology. To many, those within the terrorist network may appear irrational, motivated by hatred, have unrealistic goals, and willing to kill innocent men, women, and children to achieve their end. In reality, however, Al-Qaeda like other terrorist groups, acts in a largely rational manner in the sense that it weighs ends and means, consider alternatives approaches and costs and benefits (Beyond Al-Qaeda Book). In addition, for Al-Qaeda and the groups that share the same ideology, governments in the Middle East primarily exist because of U.S. support; their destruction thus is contingent on removing that support. Al-Qaeda has sought to achieve this objective by pressuring the United States to withdraw from the Middle East through the perpetration of increasingly costly terrorist acts. Ever since the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa, Al-Qaeda has continually altered and expanded its targets, making organizational modification that have resulted in significant changes in the way it conducts operations. The use of planes as suicide bombing in the September 11 attacks, and the small boat packed with explosive that devastated the USS cole are two of the best examples of Al-Qaeda innovation (160).

The Evolution of Al-Qaeda

Since the 1980s, Al-Qaeda has gone through different stages that witnessed a serious transformation in its structure and behaviors. The formation of Al-Qaeda started in 1988/9 as Al-Qaeda al Askariya or “The military Base” for the defense against Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that was funded by the United States. The base was including Arab volunteers and Egyptian Islamist groups. During that time, the structure of Al-Qaeda was strongly Hierarchical and based on Hospitality house, providing logistical support for 25,000 individuals and House of Followers created by Osama Bin Laden (137). Since 1996, Major attacks of Al-Qaeda started to took place starting from Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia killing 19 American soldiers. This was followed by simultaneous bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. In 2001, the tragic bombing of World Trade Center and attacks on Pentagon took place, following the NATO intervention in Afghanistan where the formation of Al-Qaeda al Oum and proliferation of regionally independent mini-Al-Qaeda organizations occurred, some of which has already been closely aligned in many Arab countries (140). Thereafter, Al-Qaeda had several tactical shifts from “thinking locally and acting globally” to “thinking globally and acting locally”. They focused on more quantitative than qualitative attacks: Mohamedou counts 775 casualties through Al-Qaeda related groups between 2002 and 2006 in a total of eleven countries (90). 2011 marked the killing of Osama Bin Laden by the Obama administration. Given the fact, the killing of Bin Laden has removed the movement’s ideological figure, these findings may be useful in anticipating future developments and the movement’s reaction to opportunity in Iraq and Afghanistan following the withdrawal of allied forces will increase Al-Qaeda presence in the region.

US Government and International Media’s Understanding of Terrorism

Furthermore, Al-Qaeda is classified by the United Nation and by many, if not all countries and international organizations as a terrorist group. The entire world, including the United States, have declared a “war on terror” campaign, but it turns out that there is no universal agreement on what “terrorism” really is. The State Department of US said in a report on world terrorism in 2000 that, “No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance” (State Department). The key elements to terrorism are obvious to many, violence, noncombatant targets, intention of spreading fear, and political aims. Finding a commonly accepted definition, however, has proven difficult. Are attacks on military personnel or political leader’s acts of terrorism? What about attacks on property? Must terrorism be physically violent, or is it enough to simply instill fear? After the September 11th attacks on New York and Washington, that was believed to be committed by Al-Qaeda, there is more pressure to agree on one particular definition. Leading governments like the US have used the word terrorism to describe the threat they are facing, ignoring completely, the threat they are making internationally.

 

How Problematic the Definition of Terrorism is

Richard Betts, director of the Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University states, that many people believe there are cases where extreme actions are justified. For instance, the United States have bombed civilian targets in Afghanistan, Yemen, Somalia, and Iraq, but few would call it terrorism. The action is widely considered justified by the fact that the United States’ national security has been threatened and they had to fight it back. Therefore, everybody can find an exception to any abstract definition (90). It is believed that Dictatorships terrorize their own people; democracies do not; but they can engage in state sponsored terrorism in other countries. Declaring war and sending the military to fight other forces is not terrorism, nor is the use of violence to punish criminals who have been convicted of violent crimes, but many would argue that democracies are also capable of terrorism. Israel has for many years been characterized by critics, especially in the Middle East, United Nations Resolutions, and human rights organizations, as perpetrating terrorism against the Palestinians since 1967. Palestinian militants call Israel terrorist, Kurdish militants call Turkey terrorist, Tamil militants call Indonesian terrorist; and, of course, the nation-states call the militants who oppose their regimes “terrorists”. I personally believe that the emergence of Al-Qaeda was a result of Western countries meddling in Middle Eastern affairs; attacking civilians. The terrorist acts Al-Qaeda is committing is merely a counter attack. In a world full of wars and contentions, the only way to be heard and given attention is to act as violently as some government do. Even though this is not how it should be, but this is the approach of many terrorist organizations around the globe, especially Al-Qaeda. The amount of injustice and oppression some part of the world is facing from oppressive governments, make radical groups even more wanting to fight this oppression back. To conclude, it is important to notice that the notion terrorism might be problematic and is being exploited by certain  developed nations against others.

Social Movement Theories

Social movement theory is a study within social science that generally explain why social movements or protests occur and what are their consequences. Understanding social movements and their impact on society through theories and models is vital. According to Goodwin and Jasper’s book, “The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts”, Social movement is “A collective, organized, sustained, and no institutional challenge to authorities, power holders, or cultural beliefs and practices” (4). This generally means that any group of people that are trying to change or resist change in society form a social movement.

Resource Mobilization Theory

Resource mobilization theory is a major theory in the study of social movements that emerged in the 1970s. It emphasizes the ability of movements to acquire resources and mobilize people to accomplish the movement’s goals. For social movements to sustain themselves over time, they need resources. John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald, stated in their article that activists tend to work hard to mobilize more resources, to see their existing in new and imaginative ways, and to find ways to protest that are within their means (161). The means of mobilizing social movements can be through telephones, internet, lobbyists, etc. In addition, social movement organizations have a number of strategic tasks such as mobilizing supporters, neutralizing and or transforming mass, achieving change in targets (162).

 

Political Opportunity Theory

This theory argues that success or failure of social movements is primarily affected by political opportunities. It answers questions such as: Why does contentious politics seem to develop only in particular periods of history? Most social movement organizations tend to use the opportunities and constraints they face then collectively act to create new opportunities to achieve their goals. Sidney Tarrow, David Meyer and Doug McAdam are considered among the most prominent supporters of this theory.

Framing Process

Framing process comprises a set of concepts and perspectives on how organizations, individuals, and societies perceive and communicate. The framing of such organizations either set by the organization itself or involved social construction. These social constructions include mass media sources, political or social movements, or other organization. According to “Comparative Perspective on Social Movements” article that was written by Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, Mayer N. Zald, framing process was referred to as “Conditioning the presence or absence of these perceptions is that complex of social psychological dynamics-collective attribution, social construction” (5). Framing involves the social construction of a social phenomenon by political or social movements.

Al-Qaeda and Applied Theories

In order to analyze the development of AL-Qaeda, various scholars have pursued the application of social movement theory over the past ten years. This section will highlight the three major trends of social movements and their application to that of Al-Qaeda.

The first theory is the Resource Mobilization theory. It is especially useful in describing the first decade of Al-Qaeda since its creation in 1988 whereas the previous decade has seen large elements of reaction to political opportunities and constraints as well as framing. There are many types of resources, moral, cultural, social organizational and material. In terms of organizational resource, the religious background of the movement was favorable. Al-Qaeda could ensure fast mobilization by arranging meetings at mosques which at the same time gave them legitimacy even in a repressive environment. Quintan Wiktorowicz mentioned in his article “Islamic Activism”, four mobilization methods that Islamic Activism was formed by. He explained that the role of the mosque is utilized as a religious mobilizing structure by various radical and non-radical Islamic groups. He quotes, “Within the physical structure of the mosque, Islamists offer sermons, lessons, and study groups to propagate the movement message, organize collective action, and recruit new joiners” (10). Since the emergence of AL-Qaeda, the organization has used mosques and religious gatherings to mobilize their ideologies and to attract Muslims to join. In this matter, mobilization through the mosque is analogous to the use of churches by civil rights movement in the United States. Al-Qaeda used mosques and after Friday gatherings to promote their extreme ideas and to get supporters. It was easy for Al-Qaeda, especially back in the 1990s, to attract Muslims from all over the world in the name of religion.         The second theory is the Political Opportunity theory. Present day Al-Qaeda’s structure which has changed significantly from the past. Al-Qaeda’s structure has shifted from being a hierarchical organization in the 1990s to a decentralized structure in the recent years. At this stage, Al-Qaeda require less means of resource mobilization but more strategic action driven by external opportunities and constraints. Mohamedou Ould, in his article “The Rise and Fall of Al Qaeda: Lessons in Post-September 11 Transnational Terrorism”, argue that Al-Qaeda has visualizes this long term strategy of providing oversight instead of actual decision making to expand geographical outreach (71). Political opportunity, however, provides a more reasonable explanation in describing a movement that has adjusted to opportunities and constraints since it is unlikely that Al-Qaeda has anticipated a US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq as a result of the 9/11 attack. In addition, opportunities for the growth of Al-Qaeda arouses as early as 1991 with US forces stationed in Saudi Arabia as a result of the intervention against Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. Al-Qaeda is capable of recognizing and benefiting from opportunities, but many governments were undermining that at that time. The withdrawal of allied forces from Afghanistan and Iraq may intrude on the one hand a new constraint for Al-Qaeda since it will no longer be easily possible to attack “the enemy”. On the other hand, it may present an opportunity for Al-Qaeda to establish an Islamic authority and achieve their goals. The political instability of neighboring countries like Mali, Niger and Southern Algeria may create a further opportunity in establishing more bases of Al-Qaeda in the region.

This takes us to the third theory, which is the Framing Process. Al-Qaeda relies increasingly on framing to create a divide between Muslims and non-Muslims nourishing an environment of fear and increasing cohesion. Al-Qaeda’s claims constitute the political goals at the core of all framing. The first one is to end Israel’s occupation of Palestinian territories. The second one is to stop Western (especially US) support for authoritarian regimes. The third one is to rescue US military presence and hegemony in the Middle East and Central Asia. The last one is to end the “Inhumane capitalism guided by the war and oil lobby” (88). The uniqueness of these goals to Al-Qaeda is however controversial. Anti-Western narratives can be traced back to the Muslim Brotherhood’s Sayyid Qutb, of the most important figures of political Islam, who rejected the influence of the West. This framing claims justification for the killing of American civilians. Moreover, there are many organizations in the world that might share some of these goals, but it seems that these frames are only framed for Al-Qaeda.  It was argued that Al-Qaeda shows strong signs of social movement and that social movement theory is especially applicable in describing the process of decentralization and reduction of hierarchy. Theories can thereby help analyze and understand the creation of conditions for mobilization (e.g. resource mobilization theory) as well as the ideological background. Social movement theory provides a useful framework for interpreting al-Qaeda. It help focus on the crucial questions of why and how the organization emerged and what caused the change in the organizational mode leading to today’s structure. The dominance of Western scholars in social movement theory and the perception that Islamism is somewhat exceptional led for a long time to the exclusion of generally non-Western movements and specifically Islamic movements.

In conclusion, the transformation of Al-Qaeda has gone through different stages remarking a new structure of the organization. Since the emergence of Al-Qaeda in the 1990s, they have changed their goals and tactics depending on the opportunities and constraints around them. As a social movement, terrorism has played a big role in the international community, urging people to deeply trying to understand it and its consequences. This paper discussed the emergence of Al-Qaeda as a terrorist group in the 20th century as a result of hatred and resentment toward the Western interventions into the Middle East and Muslim countries. The discussion of social movement theory such as resource mobilization, political opportunity, and framing process, helped to better shape Al-Qaeda’s development. Resource mobilization in Al-Qaeda depended on attracting Muslims from all over the world who shared the same hatred and resentment toward the West using mosques and religion to promote their ideas. They used the war on Afghanistan against the Soviet Union as a start of their organization and then used every other occasion to attack. Al-Qaeda has also used the political and social opportunities to enlarge their terrorist attacks. The use of framing to set the goals and tactics of Al-Qaeda added a great deal in understanding the development of Al-Qaeda. In terms of Ideology, Islam was not necessarily what motivated such terrorist groups to come out and fight, but Al-Qaeda exploited the name of Islam and God to achieve their goals. Al-Qaeda has also used the political and social opportunities to enlarge their terrorist attacks (3,138).

 

Works Cited

 

Are We Losing the New War on Terror, McLaughlin, John.

Beyond al-Qaeda, RAND Corporation, 226 Pages, 2006. Print.

 

Comparative Perspective on Social Movements: Political opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings by Doug McAdam and John D McCarthy, Mayer N. Zald.

 

J Goodwin, JM Jasper, The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, John Wiley and Sons, Volume. 12 2009. Print.

 

John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald, The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts,John Wiley and Sons, Volume. 12 2009. Print.

 

Mohamedou, Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould. “The Rise and Fall of Al Qaeda: Lessons in Post- September 11 Transnational Terrorism.” Geneva Centre for Security Policy GenevaPapers – Research Series no 3. September 2011. Novemeber 15, 2012. Print.

Metzger, Tobias. “Social Movement Theory and Terrorism: Explaining the Development of  Al- Qaeda.” Student Pulse 6.09 (2014). <http://www.studentpulse.com/a?id=916>

The strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, Roobert Pape.

The Leading Factors of Suicides in Japan between 1998 to 2011

Powerpoint PresentationApril, 2015

The Leading Factors of Suicides in Japan between 1998 to 2011

Suicide is one of the biggest issues of concern to Japanese society. The elevated suicide rates are creating a significant social issue not only in Japan but worldwide, posing a serious and urgent challenge. From 1998 to 2011, suicide has been on the increase in proportion to the total number of deaths. According to the National Policy Agency, since the year 2000, the number of people committing suicide has increased to a very high rate reaching 35,000 suicides in 2003. The leading factors behind this increase in suicide rates are believed to be health issues, including both physical and mental issues, economic problems, and family issues. Since 2011, the number of suicides, however, has declined relatively to the past. This paper is going to focus on the sharp increase in the total number of suicides, the fact that the annual number of suicides has remained at a constant level of 30,000 for more than ten years since 1998, and the gradual increase in younger suicide victims over the years. Literately based, it will explain in detail the leading factors behind high suicide rates among the middle-aged population in Japan between the years 1998 to 2011 and what contributed to a decline in the number since 2011. The focus on this specific age group of middle aged people, 15 to 34, is because they were more vulnerable to suicide than any other age groups. Exploring this topic would be an added value to the study of Asian cultures as it examines the leading factors behind suicide in Japan and discusses one of the biggest concerns Japanese society had and is still facing today.

It is effective to analyze trends in suicide rates after the sharp increase from 1998. It has been proven that age differences have affected suicide rates in Japan. Suicide, jisatsu, in Japanese, has become a major problem in Japan during the time between 1998 and 2011. According to the Overview of Suicide in 2008 published by the National Police Agency in May 2009, the total number of suicide victims in  2008 was 32,249.

The graph includes the number of suicide victims increased sharply in Japan from 1998 to 1999, and thereafter over 30,000 people killed themselves every year for 11 years in a raw. In other words, approximately 90 people died from suicide every day for over ten years. To be more specific, according to the Gender Paradox in Suicide, men rates are higher. Canetto (1990:19) explains how important is the study of gender ratio in suicide cases, especially in Japan. She asserted that male’s rates of suicide tend to be higher than that of women due to many factors, including social pressure and expectations. Japan comes third after the USA and Australia with a gender ratio of 2.7 exceeding only South Korea with a ratio of 1.8.

As it can be seen in figure 2, gender ratio of suicide rates vary across aged groups. The differences were considerable in the young (age range: 20-29 years) with a gender ratio of 2.23; 2.07–2.40 and they were not prominent in the older groups. Moreover, the male to female ratio of suicide rates for people in their twenties, tend to increase with age, reaching 3.9 in Japan. By contrast, in people in their fifties and seventies, the ratio tends to decrease with age.  In addition, it has been proven that age differences affected the increase in suicide rates. Graph 3 shows the breakdown of the growth rate of the number of suicide victims from 1998 to 2007 by age group. Kota Mori (2010: 81) explains how suicide rate for middle-aged people had played a central role in the increase of suicide, contributed negatively, subduing the overall number and rate of suicide. That is why the focus of this paper specified its interest on middle-aged group, as they are more prone to suicide. Suicide trends in Japan has three characteristics, which is the sharp increase in the total numbers since 1998, the fact that the annual number of suicide has remained at a constant level of 30,000 for the more than ten years since 1998, and the gradual increase in younger suicides victims over the years (Chen et al 2009b). Suicide in Japan has been treated as a problem mainly caused by economic problems, health and family issues. Based on the report by the National Police Agency, the causes or motives of suicide were identified for about 23,000 out of the 32,249 suicide victims in 2008. The most common cause was health problems for about 15,000 victims, followed by financial or life-related problems (job problems), and family problems (23). On the 2008 White Paper on Suicide, it is mentioned that the causes for suicide were not limited to mental problems, but involve various risk factors, and it is highly possible that the socioeconomic structure in itself is part of the problem that generates such risk factors. These include contentions within the family, debts, physical illness, poverty, working environment, and unemployment. This indicates how economy in most cases lead to health and family issues. The White Paper on Suicide points out that each victim has four risk factors on average, and these factors formed a chain that led him/her to commit suicide. In reality, health problems and depression are considered to be at the very final stages leading to suicide, and socioeconomic problems that drive a person to commit suicide often to be hidden.

Experts in Japan believe that the awfully high figure of suicides is due to the economic downturn. Since the early 1990s when the asset bubble burst, Japan has suffered a slow and even negative growth coupled with price deflation. Economic statistics remain gloomy, and more importantly, the nation’s mood (both consumers and producers) has become pessimistic. Asset prices in the real estate and stock markets inflated, creating one of the biggest financial bubbles in history. Real estate prices also plummeted during the recession—by 80 percent from 1991 to 1998 (Herbener 1999). Real GDP during the 1990s stagnated, rising only from 428,826 billion yen in 1990 to 469,480 billion yen by the end of 2000. Growth has been negative since 1998. The unemployment rate rose from 2.1 percent in 1991 to 4.7 percent at the end of 2000. Although the unemployment rate may seem low by international standards, the rise to 4.7 percent is significant in Japan, given the cultural and historical precedent of lifetime employment and given that it was never above 2.8 percent in the 1980s. The official unemployment rate is also biased downward because the Japanese government offers “employment adjustment subsidies” to companies that maintain employees as “window sitters” (Herbener 1999). Japanese companies have laid off large numbers of employees as the economy has worsened. Medium-sized companies once relied on larger companies for orders, yet business has now dried up. Families are feeling the change, and homelessness has begun to rise. A strong correlation between the unemployment rate and the suicide rate has been observed in Japan during that period, which suggests that public and private safety nets against unemployment were not functioning well.

According to the Ministry of Health, unemployment rates for people aged 20 or over in all industries are shows. By age group, for both men and women, the overall unemployment rates among those aged between 15 and 25 and those ages between 25 and 40 continued to rise from 1990 to 2003, and reached 10.1% and 7.1% respectively, in July 2009 (see figure 3 below). Such an increase in the unemployment rate and the number of young people without jobs, and decreased self-employed workers and small and medium-sized enterprises were major contributors to increased suicide rates since the 1990s. Unemployment does not only causes difficulties in the short-term living environment but also increases uncertainties over income that preclude a clear future forecast and creates a decline in lifetime income (Suzuki 2008).In reality, many empirical studies have demonstrated a correlation between high unemployment rates and high suicide rates (Platt 1984; Chen et al. 2012; Sawada and Sugano 2009). Figure 4 shows correlation between the unemployment rates and suicide rate that is very high in Japan.

Figure 4

This shows that there is a strong negative correlation between available job openings and suicides. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between the number of bankruptcies of small companies and suicides. After the financial crisis that happened in 1998, the Bank of Japan conducted a Short-Term Economic Statistical Survey of Enterprises in Japan.

Figure 5

Figure 5 shows the result obtained, the first quarter of 1998, the index showed a dramatic drop, which reflects the deterioration of debt problems caused by the credit crunch and credit withdrawal. Therefore, the strong correlation between unemployment, corporate bankruptcy, and increased suicides can be clearly observed. Furthermore, one of the key factors of suicide in japan is due to overwork. Karo jistasu, or overwork suicide, refers to the suicide of people who are driven by excessive work to take their own lives (Kitanaka 1970: 1). It has been well documented that some middle-aged workers in Japan are committing suicide in part due to work-related stress as well as the economic recession. The lack of protections by labor laws showed to be contributing to the high suicide rates. Although the actual number of Japanese who commit overwork suicide is small, its importance lies in its political and symbolic impact. Increased awareness about overwork suicide heightened in the year 2000 when the Japanese Supreme Court ordered a large Japanese company to compensate the family of a deceased man who allegedly committed suicide because of long and excessive overwork. After this precedent setting verdict, there were several similar legal outcomes that eventually legitimized the concept of overwork suicide. Hence, the concept of social causality of suicide has been promoted to confront the suicide crisis.

The economic difficulties have posed a range of health issues, both mental and physical, to middle aged Japanese, putting them at further rick of suicide. Health issue is a key factor behind high suicide rates in Japan.

Figure 6

According to figure 6, health problems are the number one motive behind suicides in Japan between 1998 and 2011. Back at that time, suicide considered to be one of the three leading causes of death among people aged 15-34 years. This fact might be still happeneing today. Health problems were cited as the main factor in 15,000 suicides, significantly leading all other causes. Among the 15,000 victims who committed suicide because of health problems, for the largest number, the reason was depression (utsubyo). Table 7 shows the breakdown of contribution ratios by motive among the rate of increase. Out of the 34.73% increase, 12.75% of suicides were due to health problems and 10.26% were due to financial or life-related problems. This shows that the most common direct cause of suicide in Japan is depression, but at the same time, the significant contribution ratio of financial or life-related problems, such as unemployment, debt, poverty, and working environment, are hidden factors behind depression. Furthermore, unemployment is often associated with mental or physical disorders, which increases the risk of suicide in a complex and serious manner.

Table 7

Family problems are also a result of economic downturn and bad working environment causing problems with depression, having an impact on family dynamics, which compound to make matters even worse for the individual in distress, thereby causing suicide. Family problems are always underestimated and not taken seriously. Middle aged population in Japan is more prone to commit suicide than any other age group (assuming they are all married, or still living with their families). Many would take their own lives because they cannot feed their family, which is a result of economic downturn. Similarity, the pressure might be mental as Japanese workers tend to have a high sense of responsibility toward their work and families as well which creates a tension being under pressure from both family and work place. Moreover, the uprising of those middle aged individuals within their families and the lack of strong ties and trust may affect their psychological state. There are approximately one in every 40 people has lost a family member due to suicide in Japan. Chen et al. (2009: 98) explains how individuals, especially in their middle ages, will be more prone to suicide if a member of their family has committed a suicide. This would increase the feeling of depression and anxiety and would have a high probability to commit suicide. In addition, annual suicide rates and in men and women correlated significantly with the annual divorce rate. Table 8 shows the correlation of annual divorce rates and suicide rates from 1992 to 2004. The American Journal of Medicine provided this table after a study of all divorce and suicide rates that happened on the same year. The result was a significant correlation of divorce and suicide rates. This shows that having problems within the family would lead to a high suicide rates. Therefore, the problematic structure of the family and depressing environment were believed to be one of the highest motives of suicide together with economic and health issues. The study of divorce and marriage rates is important, especially in the Japanese society, since creating a family and being a member of a family tend to facilitate the integration of an individual into society. Utah University have conducted a study that suppose that if the divorce rate is higher or the marriage rate is lower in one society than in others, it could cause a weakening of social integration and therefore, trigger higher suicide rates (8). In this context, Kim et al. (2011) examined correlation coefficients between divorce rates and suicide rates in Japan. According to the results, there are strong relationship between divorce rates and suicide affect men more than women; however, in general, they have strong relationship with high suicide rates.

Japan has a relatively high suicide rates, but the number of suicides has been    declining under 30,000 for three consecutive years since 2011 although the population of Japan decreased over the same period. The annual number of suicides in Japan, especially those of middle aged, has fallen below the 30,000 level for the first time in 15 years, the National Police Agency announced. In 2012, 27,766 people committed suicide, a decrease of 2,885 or 9.4 percent from 2011 and falling to a level below 30,000 for the first time since 1997 (Japan Times).

Table 7

As it can be seen in table 7, suicide has been declining since 2011. While suicide is still far and away the leading cause of death among youths in Japan, that statistic actually is not as scary as it seems on the surface; with Japan’s low rate of violent crime and death by natural causes unsurprisingly low in that age group, the numbers speak more to Japan’s overall safety than to any kind of suicide trend. The problem of suicide, however, is still very important to discuss and dangerous to neglect. Since 2011, the decline of suicide rates was due to the wide recognition of depression in the Japanese society beginning of the year 2000s. Kitanaka (1970 :2) explained in her article Depression In Japan, how psychiatry have played a key role in the process of curing depression or overwork (Karo utsubyo) which was in most cases considered number one reason leading to suicide. Therefore, the most common tactic to solve the suicide problem is to treat the underlying psychiatric disturbance using medication and psychotherapy. In recent years, the increasing prescribing of anti-depressants appears to have resulted in a decline in suicide rates (Isacsson 2000). In addition, effective psychotherapies have been devised for suicidal individuals and Japan now have networks of telephone crisis centers, functioning twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, for individuals to call during times when they feel depressed. However, ( Joseph Richman: 1986) explain that since interpersonal factors are often important to Japanese, family therapy is perhaps the most appropriate format for psychotherapy for suicidal individuals.Therefore, unless measures to eliminate such risk factors are taken along with treatment for depression, efforts to prevent suicide could be less than effective. Since 2011, the declining rates of suicides are showing a good sign as long as they continue to decline.

To conclude, it can be seen how economic, health, and family issues have come together to affect suicide rates in Japan between 1998 and 2011, especially among the middle aged group. It has been proven that economic difficulties such as unemployment and rescissions some individuals are facing, leads both directly and indirectly to affect health and family factor. Economically, there was a huge rise in the price of the necessities of life, which caused financial problems to Japanese workers. Family issues such as high divorce rates and difficulty in uprising, are increasing and becoming a source of depression for many people. Health issues, both physical and mental, are also proved to be contributors to the issue as they lead to depression. The number of suicide cases, however, has been decreasing since 2011 due to recognition of depression and the help of psychiatry, which showed a good sign. Suicide rates will continue to decline as long as strategies to prevent it continued and showed a great effect to solve this huge problem (2907).

Works Cited

A Demographic Evaluation of Increasing Rates of Suicide Mortality in Japan and South Korea,

      Utah University. 2011. Print.

How is Suicide Different in Japan?, Joe Chen, Yun Cheong Choi, Kota Mori,

                Yasuyuki Sawada, Saki Sugano, University of Tokyo, Yonsei University. Japan Labor

                 Review. November 2007. Print.

Isacsson, G. ( 2000) Suicide prevention — a medical breakthrough? Acta Psychiatrica

               Scandinavica, 102, 113-117.Print.

Joint Liability Borrowing and Suicide, Chen, Joe, Yun Jeong Choi and Yasuyuki Sawada, CIRJE

         Discussion Paper F-534, University of Tokyo, December 2009.

Joseph Richman , Family therapy for suicidal people, Human Sciences Press, 1981. Print.

Jeffry M. Herbener, Explaining Japan’s Recession. 1998. Print.

Kitanaka, Junko (2008) Diagnosing suicides of resolve: psychiatric practice in contemporary

               Japan. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 32: 152-176.

Kitanaka Junko. A History of Suicide in the Modern World: International Perspectives. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press; 2008. Questioning the suicide of resolve: medico-legal disputes regarding “overwork suicide” in twentieth-century Japan.

Kitanaka, Junko (2012) Depression in Japan: psychiatric cures for a society in distress.

               Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Yutaka, Motohashi, Suicide in Japan, Department of Public Health, Akita University Graduate

            School of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 9823, 7-13 April 2012, Pages 1282-1284. Japan.

Ministry of Health

Portzky, G. and van Heeringen, K. (2010) Suicide, in Principles of Social Psychiatry, Second

             Edition (eds C. Morgan and D. Bhugra), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi:

             10.1002/9780470684214.ch18.

Recession, Unemployment, and Suicide in Japan, Joe Chen, Yun Cheong Choi, Kota Mori,

                Yasuyuki Sawada, Saki Sugano, University of Tokyo, Yonsei University. Japan Labor

                 Review. Vol.9, no. 2. 75-92, 2012. Print.

Situation of suicide in the year 1998 Document

The National Police Agency in Japan- 2008

The White Paper on Suicide in Japan-2008

The Bank of Japan

The National Institute of Mental Health

The Japan Times

Those who are left behind” An estimate of the number of family members of suicide

          Victims in Japan. Social Indicators Rearach, 94 (3):535-44. 2009. Print.

عندما أحببتُك..

الاستخارة، بعكس ما يؤمن بعضنا، تأتي بعد اتخاذ قرارك

انت تسأل الله فيما ان كان قرارك خير لك ام لا..
حتى في هذه الامور الصغيرة، يذكرك الله ان تتوكل عليه وان لا تتواكل
والفرق واضح وصريح..
بناء على هذه الحقيقة
قررت أن أحبك
ولكن كما قالت أثير النشمي
” لم يكن الحب قرارا اسعى لاخذه بقدر ما كان قرارا يسعى لأخذي”
المهم أن القرار موجود
وبقيت الاستخارة
أستخير الله فيك دوما عند بداية صباحاتي
في صلواتي
في وقت فراغي
” يارب أنت تعلم ان وجودي بجانبه يسعدني واكاد اجزم انه يسعده، ان كنت تعلم يالله بأن فلان خير لي في ديني ودنياي وعاقبة امري فدعني أعيش معه طيلة حياتي ويسر لي وجودي جانبه وافتح لي وله ابواب الخير والقبول، ولكن ان كنت تعلم إلهي بأن وجودي مع فُلان شر لي وشر له، فانا لا اريد أن اتسبب في اذاه وبالمقابل لا اريد من احد ان يأذيني، فأصرف عني هذا الحب ورضني ثم رضني بما قسمت”
تخيل فُلان بأنني ضممتك في صلواتي؟
وانا لا افعل هذا عادة
حبك اصبح اكثر من مجرد عادة
اكثر من مجرد دردشة يومية تنتهي بتصبحين على خير
قطعا الحب يجب ان يكون اكثر من هذا..
أنت الذي علمتني بأن الحب اكثر من هذا
بأن علاقات الغرام التي تهتم بهذه التفاهات، كما اسميتها، مجرد زيف!
لازلت أتذكر الليالي والأيام التي كنت تتركني فيها غير مباليا مع اصدقائك
أتحرق غيظا
أتقطع شوقا
أكابر
ثم اتنازل
وانتظرك بالساعات فقط لاسمع كلمة منك قبل النوم
وأنت بكل بساطة تعود البيت منهكا وتخبرني
“لا أستطيع ان أفتح عيني.. تصبحين على خير احتاج أن انام، أحبك جدا”
اتألم والعن واشكك في حبك كل ليلة مئات المرات
وانام كلي غبنة وانكسار
لقد كنت استغرب جرأتك في تركي هكذا
لم اكن ابدا من اولوياتك
ولا اتوقع بانني يوما سأكون
اخبرتني يوما بعد ان شحدت الوقت منك،
” هذا طبعي! انا هكذا! لا داعي بأن تتأففي او تتنرفزي… واعلمي بأني قطعت علاقتي مع صديقاتي القديمات لهذا السبب تحديدا.. ارجوكِ لا تفعلي من هذا الموضوع مشكلة مثل ما فعلوا.. ابقي معي وتقبليني كما انا”
تفاجاءت مجددا من صراحتك وجرأة كلامك
ولم استطع إلا أن اقول كلمتك المفضلة
” حاضر فُلان”
لطالما أحببت ان تستعبدني
تريدني أن أكون ملكك
تريد أن تتملكني بدون أي إعتراض
وإن حصل وأعترضت
فدائما تسكتني بأن هذه هي طريقتك في الحب ..
اه منك!
انت اكثر شخص يستفزني.. بل أكثر شخص يستمتع في استفزازي!
سقف توقعاتي كان عالياً كالمعتاد
وكنت في كل موقف تخذلني
ومع مرور الوقت
اصبحت لا أتوقع أي شيء منك
صدق او لا تصدق..
أصبحت أكثر سعادة وراحة
أصبحت أفرح .. من كلمة حلوة
وانا التي كتبت قوانين في الحب
هه
جميعها أُتلِفت عندما بدات علاقتي بك ..!
أصبحتُ من اطار ما وصفتهم أحلام مستغانمي ب
” الغبيات الطيبات الساذجات”
أقر، وللأسف، بضعفي..
او ربما يجب أن اقول استسلامي؟
حقيقة لا أعرف!
إني يا فُلان اقف امام حبك صامتا
أو ربما مصموتة ؟
لا ادري
أذكر يوما عندما أتعبني التفكير
ولم اعد افهمك
رحت أبحث كالمجنونة الملهوفة في كُتب  الأبراج
في مواقع الأنترنت
في أوجه من هم في الحب مثلي
علني القى الدواء
علني افهمك!
شككتني وزعزعت فيا مباديء لم أكن اتوقع يوماً ان تتزعزع في بهذه السهولة!
فجأة
آمنت بالأبراج والنجوم السماوية
كنت اقرأك مع كل صفحة
كل صفات برجك كانت تتكلم عنك انت تحديدا
كنت اقرأ بدهشة وتارة بألم وتارة بضحكة من شر بلائي بك!
دعني أذكر لك بعض مما قرأته
” الثور في الحب .. متمرد
يحب أن يتملك محبوبه
أنه يحب بطريقته الخاصة ولا يرضى بأن يحب الا بطريقته هذه “
قرأت هذه السطرين وانا اومء برأسي
موافقة كل مايقال.
أكمل الكاتب
” الثور يقدس انشغاله
إذا كان مشغول لن يتحدث معك
سواء مشغول باصدقائه او بدراسته او بعمله
هذا لا يعني أنه لا يهتم بك او يحبك
بالعكس انت في باله دائما ولكنه يفضل بأن تتفهم انشغاله وأن تتقبل هذه الصفة فيه من غير أي نقاش لأنه لا يعترف بأنها عيب او خطأ من الاساس”.
ضاحكة، قرأت هذا السطر.
أسرعت بإغلاق الكتاب لكيلا اصاب بجلطة
من صحة ما قرأت
لكي لا اؤمن في الأبراج أكثر
لكي لا أتعرف عليك أكثر
أخاف معرفتك
لا اريد التعمق فيك
خائفة من أي خيبة أمل أخرى..
لقد عرفت عنك من القليل مايكفيني
أنت بحر .. وأنا يا حبيبي لا أتقن السباحة!
سأتوقف الآن

قل هل يستوي الذين يعلمون والذين لا يعلمون؟

قل هل يستوي الذين يعلمون والذين لا يعلمون؟

قد إيش ممكن العلم يرفع من مكانتك في الدنيا وفي الآخرة كمان؟

قد إيش ممكن يحفظ كرامتك ويصون نفسك ويسد حاجاتك؟

قد إيش ممكن يحررك من قيود إنت كنت حاططها لنفسك من غير قصد؟

قد إيش ممكن ينور بصيرتك ويفتح عيونك لأشياء كثير مهمة في حياتك؟

قد إيش ممكن يكون خارطة طريق في حياتك ويوجهك للإتجاهات الصحيحة؟

مجرد إنك بتحاول تخرج نفسك من الجهل الي أنت فيه, هذا بحد ذاته تصرف عقلاني

الجهل ممكن نصنفه على إنه مرض, مشكلة, معضلة والتعاريف لا تنتهي.

العلم هو النور او ممكن نقول الطريق إللي حيخرجك من ظلمات الجهل

العلم هو النفق الي حيوصلك لمكان تاني انت ما عمرك فكرت فيه ولا عمرك شفته

العلم هو نور المعرفة اللي نحن نحاول دايما نوصله, ومهما كبرنا, نحن لسة بنتعلم كل يوم شوية

لا تتهاون ابدا بالعلم لأنك يمكن ما تحس بأهميته, لكن صدقني هو الشي الوحيد والأكيد اللي محتندم إنك عشت عليه وبيه

لانه هو الشي الوحيد اللي يوسع مداركك

تحياتي

جون 8